Gad Horowitz

Office Location

SS 3063

Phone Number


Fax Number


Email Address


Area Group(s)


  • MESc, University of Manitoba
  • M.A., McGill University
  • Ph.D., Harvard University

Gad Horowitz

Professor Emeritus


Horowitz has specialised in labour theory, and most notably coined the appellation “Red Tory” in his application of Louis Hartz’s “fragment theory” to Canadian political culture and ideological development, in his essay “Conservatism, Liberalism and Socialism in Canada: An Interpretation” (in the Canadian Journal of Political Science, 32, 2 (1966): 143–71). The use of this appellation differentiates traditional Canadian Toryism from the powerful classical liberal elements that began to emerge in the Conservative Party after World War II, but it has applications to conservative parties in other countries where “Tory” acceptance of state enterprises, the welfare state, and other institutions seen as expressions of national character conflicts with “liberal” or “neoliberal” rejection of state intervention in the economy.