- B.A., Brooklyn College - CUNY
- M.A., City College of New York - CUNY
- Ph.D. in progress, University of Toronto
Research interests include civil wars, violence, organized crime, and center-periphery state formation. He was previously a guest professor at the Universidad de Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela, as well as a visiting scholar at the Centro de Investigación y Educación Popular (CINEP) in Bogotá, Colombia. His work is scheduled to be published in the upcoming volume of Controversia.